Principle of Economics by Case & Fair-Chapter Three

  第三章是講“需求”、“供給”和“市場平衡”這三個概念;繼續更深入地回答經濟學的三大根本問題:

一、甚麼會被生產?

二、如何生產?

三、誰會得到這些生產?

首先要談到的是經濟體中的兩大決策單位~“公司”和“家庭”。基本上“公司”取得勞動力、資本和土地然後決定要生產甚麼樣的商品(物品或服務)來銷售。“家庭”根據他們想要的和可負擔的來進行採買。“公司”和“家庭”之間可以形成一個循環:家庭供給元素(輸入)市場(勞動力、資本和土地)以獲得報酬同時公司由付出報酬得到需求;公司供給產品(輸出)市場(物品或服務)以獲得報酬同時家庭由付出報酬得到需求。這裡要再次強調:生產的三大要素即為土地、勞動力和資本。這個排序是有意義的!告訴我們要善待大地,不要認為資本是萬能的!

    再來要談產品(輸出)市場的需求問題:

  • 需求數量改變s.需求改變

需求數量改變原則上是受到價格的上漲或下跌影響。然而影響需求改變的因素就很多,例如收入和品質等。

  • 價格與需求數量:需求法則

基本上價格與需求數量的曲線一定是下滑。舉例來說,同樣一杯咖啡,價錢低時的購買量一定高於價錢高時的購買量。道理很簡單:買家都希望用最少的錢換得最好的東西。

  • 影響家庭需求的其他決定因素

例如收入和財富、其他(替代)商品或服務的價格、品味和偏好以及期望等因素都會影響家庭需求。這邊要順便一提兩種完全相反的商品:一般商品的需求變化會跟隨收入變化,比如說收入增加因此娛樂購物等開銷也增加;次級商品的需求變化則於收入變化相反,比如說收入不好的時候會去夜市大賣場之類的地方大量採購,但是收入變好了以後去夜市大賣場之類的地方採購的量反而減少甚至沒有。

  • 需求曲線位移s.在需求曲線上移動

造成需求曲線位移的原因可能是收入、品質或其他產品/服務的價格;而在需求曲線上移動純粹是售價格的驅動。簡單的來說第一個現象是買家本身和產品/服務內外在環境都有變化;而第二個現象就純粹只是產品/服務內在環境的變化。

  • 從家庭需求到市場需求

其實市場需求就是家庭需求的集合。如果抽樣樣本有代表性而且數量有達到統計學的要求,這樣就可以大概了解市場需求!

  接下來談的是產品(輸出)市場的供給問題:

  • 生產成本的影響因素:

1.生產所需的原物料種類;2.所需的每項原物料的數量;3.這些原物料的價錢。

  • 供給法則:

產品生產的數量和產品的市場價格成正比~價格上揚時產量就會上升,而價格下跌時產量就會下降。

  • 影響生產成本的主要因素有:

可取得的技術,還有取得所需數量的勞動力、土地、資本、能量及其他原物料所需的價錢。簡單來說,取得的價錢和生產的數量成反向關係~取得的價錢上揚會造成生產的數量下降。

  • 供給曲線位移s.在供給曲線上移動

當成本、輸入價格、技術或相關產品和服務的價錢有所變動時會造成供給曲線位移;如果僅是產品或服務的價錢有所變動,只會影響供給數量,也就是在供給曲線上移動。

  • 從個體供給到市場供給

其實市場供給就是在每一段時間內,每一項產品的所有生產者的產量總和。

  最後總結要談談市場的三種狀態:

  • 在既有的價格下,需求的數量超過供給的數量,稱作超額需求或短缺;

  • 在既有的價格下,供給的數量超過需求的數量,稱作超額供給或過剩;

  • 在既有的價格下,供給的數量等於需求的數量,稱作平衡狀態。

當市場處於平衡狀態時,價格是沒有變動的傾向。不過市場平衡狀態是動態的!當供給曲線和需求曲線單獨或同時位移都會改變原本的平衡狀態,然後產生一個新的平衡狀態!

Why I never vote for KMT

CNP

I am going to talk about this issue relating to collective schizophrenia, hypocrisy, and Stockholm syndrome.  I would like to say that a group of people continuously saying one thing but doing the opposite are either schizophrenic or hypocritical.  Even more seriously, we can probably say that they have Stockholm syndrome.  According to these, I am go to explain why I never vote for Kuomintang (KMT).

Actually its real name is “Chinese Nationalist Party.”  For some reason it replaced this English name to its transliteration.  Reasonable inferences would be that this party somewhat wishes to lighten it Chinese origin shown to international society.  Another might be that it wishes to attract moderate pro-Taiwan voters.  To me, this name-change action has done no good.  What this party is will not be changed simply by changing its English name.  in fact, this action made me feel surreptitious about the Chinese Nationalist Party.  It somewhat created an image and message that this party is sneaky and hypocritical.

Anyway, the Chinese Nationalist Party operates in Taiwan and hold its highest goal unifying Taiwan with China.  This kind of situation is definitely unacceptable to any democratic countries.  Take Canada as an example.  No Canadian would allow a British party operating in Canada with its goal regaining full control over Canada.  Moreover, no Canadian would allow a French party operating in Canada with its goal taking Quebec over.  Under these circumstances, I as a Taiwanese, will not allow a Chinese party operating in Taiwan with it goal unifying Taiwan with China.  I am sure that most Taiwanese agree with me.

Another reason I never vote for the Chinese Nationalist Party is that it is a Leninist party.  It is an autocratic party as well.  Its party founder Sun Yet-Sen had huge lust for power in which he adopted the Soviet party structure.  Mr. Sun claimed that he had studied in Hawaii for several years.  But why didn’t he adopt the American party structure?  I would say that he was a hypocrite.  He said many attractive things but in fact many things he did were selfish and horrible.  Back to the current, until this day, the twentieth century, the Chinese Nationalist Party still puts itself above the nation (its slogan “party-nation”).  In addition, it is still using party rules to control its members especially those who are representatives to follow it policies and orders regardless of righteousness.  What the Chinese Nationalist Party is doing are undemocratic.

Thirdly, simply examining the Chinese Nationalist Party, we can many weird things.  First of all, its party leader who brought them to Taiwan, Chiang Kai-shek, is considered by the international society as a figure similar to Adolf Hitler and Joseph Stalin.   Under this circumstance, what makes those who worship Chiang Kai-shek?  I would say they are hypocritical or even schizophrenic.  Moreover, its party mission is to pursuit the happiness of all Chinese.  Nevertheless, what has this party done for the Chinese at all?  Where is it when the Tiananmen massacre happened?  What has it done for Tibetans and the people of East Turkistan (Xinjiang)?  Worst of all, recent years, retired generals interact with Chinese People’s Liberation Army generals (in service and retired) very frequent and say both troops are Chinese troops.  They totally forgot that their “forever leader” Chiang Kai-shek was against Mao Zedong and Chiang Ching-kuo made up policies against China as no contact, no negotiation, and no compromise.  So what happened to those generals?  Are they out of their minds? They and the Chinese generals used to be enemies but they befriend now!  All I can say is that those Chinese generals in Taiwan and those with same opinion as them have collective Stockholm syndrome.  I feel ashamed of them and pity them.  They cannot accept the fact and move on toward the future.

In the end, I don’t want to be a hypocrite and I certainly don’t want to be schizophrenic.  Moreover, I hope that I’m not affected by this collective Stockholm syndrome spreading in Taiwan especially in Taipei.  I hope that the Chinese Nationalist Party will diminish in the coming future.  Or it would abandon its Chinese missions and genuinely transform into a Taiwanese political party.  Before that day has come, I will never vote for this party no matter what!

One Taiwan, Two Nations

January 10, 2016

        On January fifth, General Buo-Te Dai (戴伯特) who is the chairman of Huang-Fu-Xing Party Department (黃復興黨部) of the Chinese Nationalist Party (KMT 國民黨) issued an open letter rallying their supporters.  At glance, this may be a normal campaign behavior.  However, digging into his letter, his words are way beyond appropriate political behavior in which he addresses those who disagree with him and his fellows as “the enemy.”  If he were a civil official, then such addressing might be acceptable to the general public.  Unfortunately, he is a military general.  Such saying may cause a serious social matter.  Even though this sounds ridiculous, at least he publicly expressed his true feelings which used to be hidden deep in his mind.  Ironically, he pointed out that there are two nations on this Island called Taiwan.

According to political theory, the four characteristics of a nation are territory, sovereignty, some form of government, and a group of people who share a common identity.  Sadly to say, people living in Taiwan seems to lack them all.   There are a so-called “constitutional territory” and an “effective controlled territory.”  Citizens have their rights to vote but that’s it.   The current government started with a regime fled from China in 1949.  Most serious of all, people living in Taiwan do not share a common identity.  In one world, people have elders born as Japanese.  In the other world, people have deep hatred against Japanese.  I would like to examine and discuss this identity crisis going on among those who have connection with Taiwan only after 1949, so-called (named by the authority) outer province people (外省人).  Both extremists like General Dai and free-riders with deceiving attitudes are out of my consideration.  I would like to talk about the majority ordinaries, specifically their second generation, who are their first generation born in Taiwan.  Although they were born in Taiwan, most of them could not identify themselves as Taiwanese like the way those who were born in the United States identify themselves as Americans.

Generally speaking, they are commoners just like the majority Taiwanese.  Moreover, they are brainwashing victims of the autocratic Chiang regime as well.  Besides the silly god-making of Chiang Kai-shek, the domination of Confucianism also prevents them from becoming a true “individual” and having their own “identity.”  Seriously speaking, Confucianism is not a kind of philosophy.  In fact, it is a pragmatism serving the authority.  Of course there were few Confucians with integrity.  Anyhow, they were the seldom exceptions and had difficult times.  Under these circumstances, even though quite some of those outer province people have studied or once lived in Western nations, their deep rooted mind setting still could not be changed.  From their real life experience, we can see the power and evilness of brainwashing.  Actually, there’s more about this brainwashing.  Although former President Lee Teng-hui did a lot for those outer province people, and the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP 民進黨) politicians being very generous to those outer province people, most of them still cannot vote for the DPP or pan-green (泛綠) candidates when it comes to executive elections such as presidency and mayor.

Obviously, this kind of mental situation is beyond rationality.  Unavoidably, we must analyze their psychological condition.  They should be pardoned in some parts.  For instances, we all know that rumors somewhat become facts after numerous spreading.  What I am about to say are extremely ridiculous but those sayings are widespread among outer province people especially the ones living in military communities.  There are sayings going on like “if Taiwanese have total control over the central government including the congress, they would do two things to the outer province people: first, Taiwanese would rape the women and girls of outer province people.  Second, Taiwanese would drive out all outer province people into the Taiwan Strait and the Pacific Ocean.”  Under the principle of rational inference, here I also mean excluding insanity, unless one has done inhumane things to the others, one should not have such belief.  Even so, the mass majority of outer province people are innocent and should not bear such burden or sin of their few forefathers.

Nevertheless, everyone is responsible for her or his own life.  Many of those outer province people are using collectivism as an escape and refuse to face the reality.  The past has passed yet the future is coming.  However, many of them refuse to let go of the past, which keeps them from moving forward.  Emotionally speaking, they bind the past with their parents’ past along with their childhood memory.  They consider eliminating the Republic of China (ROC) as elimination of their personality.  But the funny thing is that they don’t really know what “personality” is.  On the other hand, even though they are somewhat defending the ROC, they refuse to be responsible for the injustice behaviors of the Chiang regime and continue obstructing the process of transitional justice.  This part they also seem like free-riders who only wish to enjoy benefits but deny responsibilities.  Anyway, this is because they lack philosophical trainings.  In fact, most people in Taiwan have the same problem.  People more or less have learned some Western principles, but only segmental.  They know the meanings of rights and duties but they don’t have the sense of timeframe.

Last but not least, sarcastically, those ordinary outer province people don’t want to be a part of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) either.  It seems like that they are stuck in a dead end.  They don’t know how to get out but rationally speaking, they certainly wish to find a way out.  Ironically, due to emotional influences, other people in Taiwan including Holos (福佬人) Hakkas (客家人), and aboriginals cannot provide sufficient support for those outer province people who wish to establish their identity.  Under these circumstances, I suppose foreigners in Taiwan and abroad can kindly give us more support especially with philosophical training.  Hopefully, we people in Taiwan can soon identify who we are and whom we wish to become.

(Another Chinese Nationalist Party hard-liners event)

OneTaiwan

 

凡走過必留下痕跡

IMG_0213

  • 蔣介石發的戰士授田證到蔣經國過世都沒有兌現;是李登輝基於不忍,循正規途徑修法立法給予他們養老金及住所。

  • 野百合學運其中一項訴求是要將萬年民意代表趕下台;是李登輝採取折衷辦法,一一親自拜訪請求他們接受政府的養老金然後自願退職。

  • 依法李登輝可以控告那些“侮辱卸任元首”的暴民並要求檢調將他們拘捕;但是基於武士道與基督教精神,李登輝一笑泰然處之。

  • 陳水扁再怎麼不堪,至少他沒有把上述事情公諸於世,也沒有以“內亂罪”把那些暴民拘捕,他也沒有以“侮辱元首”來控告那些丟他東西或口出穢言的人,由此可見他是仁民的。

高年級實習生的背後意涵

theintern

勞勃狄尼洛和安海瑟威合演的這齣溫馨喜劇不只是讓觀眾再次見識他們的演技,同時也傳達了至少三個概念。第一個我認為有承接<<浴血任務三>>對“老人家”改觀的思維;第二是縱然“英雄(雌)出少年”但是“歲月”依然有其無法取代的價值;第三當然是要諷刺一下男性沙文主義嘍!

短短不到一個世紀,嚴格來說最多五十年,人類就進入資訊時代。這代表著“體力”在職場已經不是那麼重要!再加上平均壽命增長的幅度將近二十歲,這是從前的人花好幾百年甚至上千年才達到的成果。自然而然,社會型態改變很多!六十多歲體力良好的人如果沒有繁忙的社交生活,當然會想要重回職場,繼續感受自己存在的價值!

也是因為世界不再是“以力為王”,女性也相對於從前比較容易有出頭的機會。其實應該是說,年輕人更有機會出頭!所以現在有很多二三十歲的企業家。但是就算如此,有些事情卻依然是亙古不變。經營管理,尤其是人際互動的應對進退這類事情,只能靠經驗的累積。如果想快點上手,最好是找年長又經驗豐富的人來執行或者是當顧問參謀。這種事情就算天縱英明也不可能一蹴可幾,非得要花時間累積經驗。所以在現今瞬息萬變的世界,現今的“老人家”比起上個世紀中的還有價值的多了呢!

因為“資訊化”大大打破了男女之間的鴻溝,現今男性相較於女性的優勢已經大幅跌落;但是心理層面的調適還大大有待加強。男性對於“家庭主夫”這個頭銜還不能坦然接受,多少還是認為這是個不事生產、沒有價值的角色。在這部電影當中,女主角的先生原本是個超級業務員,不過是他自己願意放棄外面工作在家帶女兒好讓妻子把創意商業化,創立公司。但是他意志薄弱,覺得在家帶小孩一事無成;以至於不久後開始和女兒幼稚園同學的媽媽偷情。女主角很快就知道了,可是她不敢出聲。我覺得這其實也是在諷刺就算是二十一世紀,女性依然被家庭羈絆。一個偷情或離婚的男姓企業家不會被人質疑他的能力;但是一個婚外情受害者女性企業家卻會被人質疑能力有問題。

總結來說,高年級實習生這部電影是用輕鬆詼諧又溫馨的手法來傳遞一些值得省思的嚴肅議題。希望我們在這新的一年可以好好檢視過去,讓我們都能朝更好的狀態邁進!